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The Second Negative Rebuttal (2NR)

The Second Negative Rebuttal (2NR)

The Second Negative Rebuttal (2NR) is delivered by the same person who delivered the 2NC. This speaker has a tough job in the debate, as I think the 2NR is one of the toughest two speeches in the debate (the other one being the 2NC). The 2NR is the negative team’s last time to speak and they need to leave a positive impression on the judge while arguing that the

The First Affirmative Rebuttal (1AR)

The 1AR is spoken by the debater who delivered the 1AC. The difficulty level of the First Affirmative Rebuttal (1AR) will be determined by a couple of factors – how strong the 2AC was and whether or not the 2NC made new arguments that need to be addressed for the first time. Since the purpose of the 1AR is to defend the 2AC responses to arguments, the stronger the 2AC

The Second Negative Constructive (2NC) and the First Negative Rebuttal (1NR)

The Second Negative Constructive (2NR) and First Negative Rebuttal (1NR) are given by different people and are different lengths (2NC, 8 minutes; 1NR, 5 minutes), but the speeches function in similar ways. Collectively, the two speeches are the “negative block,” and both speakers have similar responsibilities. What the two speakers share in common is the job of defending the negative arguments that were first advanced in the 1NC. So, imagine

The First Negative Constructive (1NC)

The second speech in the debate is the First Negative Constructive (1NC). This is an eight minute speech delivered by the first negative speaker. The speech is more difficult than the 1AC, as it cannot be entirely prepared in advance, but it is not that difficult. In order to give an effective 1NC at your first tournament, it is important that you prepare some generic, off-case positions in advance that

The 1AC

The 1AC is an entirely canned speech that consists of a few parts — Inherency, Harms/Advantages, and Solvency. Inherency proves the plan is not being supported (or is not being adequately supported now) Harms/significance prove that without the plan there will be significant problems.  For example, without adopting a new education policy there will be inequality and economic problems. The plan is the basic outline of what policy the affirmative

Intermediate Text — Other forms of Topicality

Other Forms of Topicality Arguments Effects topicality. Effects topicality argues that the affirmative cannot be topical as a result of a series of steps. For example, it would not be topical to claim to increase service in Americorps by cutting taxes in a way that would improve the economy and give people more opportunities to volunteer. The volunteering is only an effect of the plan. The affirmative plan should be

Intermediate Text — Debating Kritiks in the 1AR

There are three important things that you need to be cautious of when preparing to debate a kritik in the 2AR. First, you need to be on the lookout for outrageous claims that will be made by the negative in the block that state that the critique disproves all affirmative claims made in the 1AC because it proves that all affirmative arguments are just artificial justifications for capitalism (or whatever

Intermediate Text — Kritiks as Affirmative Arguments and Framework

Kritiks as Affirmative Arguments Although they are usually discussed as such, critiques are not only negative arguments. Most obviously, affirmative teams can easily engage in second and third generation critiques and argue that the negative should lose for talking fast, using gendered language, or reading traditional (or non-traditional) evidence. Affirmative teams may often kritik the assumptions of negative arguments. They can critique politics disadvantages by arguing that good ideas shouldn’t

Intermediate Text — Performance Kritiks

The idea of “performance” has drawn a lot of talk and argument in debate. There are two different ways to understand performance, and the to are often conflated (assumed to be the same) or misunderstood. The first notion of performance is based on Judith Butler’s notion of “performativity.” The basic idea is that our word choices have significant effects in creating the world as we understand it. For example, if

Intermediate — Counterplan Theory

As noted earlier, counterplans introduce many theoretical controversies. There is no space in this volume to entertain each of them since the debates could occupy an entire volume unto themselves.  I do, however, want to briefly introduce you to each of the key questions so that you are aware of them and are encouraged to learn more about them. Can the negative run a counterplan?  Although the ability of the