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The 1AR is spoken by the debater who delivered the 1AC.

The difficulty level of the First Affirmative Rebuttal (1AR) will be determined by a couple of factors – how strong the 2AC was and whether or not the 2NC made new arguments that need to be addressed for the first time. Since the purpose of the 1AR is to defend the 2AC responses to arguments, the stronger the 2AC arguments, the easier the 1AR. With these considerations in mind, I will offer a few pieces of advice.

Address topicality first. As mentioned in other parts of this textbook . . .

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