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Intermediate Text — Other forms of Topicality

Other Forms of Topicality Arguments Effects topicality. Effects topicality argues that the affirmative cannot be topical as a result of a series of steps. For example, it would not be topical to claim to increase service in Americorps by cutting taxes in a way that would improve the economy and give people more opportunities to volunteer. The volunteering is only an effect of the plan. The affirmative plan should be

Intermediate Text — Debating Kritiks in the 1AR

There are three important things that you need to be cautious of when preparing to debate a kritik in the 2AR. First, you need to be on the lookout for outrageous claims that will be made by the negative in the block that state that the critique disproves all affirmative claims made in the 1AC because it proves that all affirmative arguments are just artificial justifications for capitalism (or whatever

Intermediate Text — Kritiks as Affirmative Arguments and Framework

Kritiks as Affirmative Arguments Although they are usually discussed as such, critiques are not only negative arguments. Most obviously, affirmative teams can easily engage in second and third generation critiques and argue that the negative should lose for talking fast, using gendered language, or reading traditional (or non-traditional) evidence. Affirmative teams may often kritik the assumptions of negative arguments. They can critique politics disadvantages by arguing that good ideas shouldn’t

Intermediate Text — Performance Kritiks

The idea of “performance” has drawn a lot of talk and argument in debate. There are two different ways to understand performance, and the to are often conflated (assumed to be the same) or misunderstood. The first notion of performance is based on Judith Butler’s notion of “performativity.” The basic idea is that our word choices have significant effects in creating the world as we understand it. For example, if

Intermediate — Counterplan Theory

As noted earlier, counterplans introduce many theoretical controversies. There is no space in this volume to entertain each of them since the debates could occupy an entire volume unto themselves.  I do, however, want to briefly introduce you to each of the key questions so that you are aware of them and are encouraged to learn more about them. Can the negative run a counterplan?  Although the ability of the

Intermediate — Types of Counterplans

Types of Counterplans The best way to understand what a counterplan is is to understand the different types of counterplans and how they work.  After you read through each, you will have a better understanding of what it means for a counterplan to be competitive. Agent counterplans.  An agent counterplan is a counterplan that uses a different agent than the affirmative does. For example, if the affirmative’s agent is the

Intermediate Text — Using Disadvantages to Win the Debate

Debating Disadvantages on the Negative This section follows the affirmative answers section because until you understand how to answer a disadvantage on the affirmative, you will not be able to effectively debate it on the negative. Have an overview.  You should prepare a written out overview that explains the basic thesis of your disadvantage, with a particular focus on the links and impacts.  You-should make arguments related to the following