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The First Negative Constructive (1NC)

The second speech in the debate is the First Negative Constructive (1NC). This is an eight minute speech delivered by the first negative speaker. The speech is more difficult than the 1AC, as it cannot be entirely prepared in advance, but it is not that difficult. In order to give an effective 1NC at your first tournament, it is important that you prepare some generic, off-case positions in advance that


Debating Topicality

Introducing Topicality Topicality arguments are similar to disadvantages, kritiks, and counterplans in that they are major forms of negative arguments that are presented in the 1NC. They are different however, in that they are procedural arguments that question the very legitimacy of affirmative advocacy in the first place. Topicality arguments claim that the plan presented by the affirmative does not fit within the bounds of the resolution. For example, if

The Basic Structure of Policy Debate

The Basic Structure of the Debate There are four popular types of high school debate – policy debate, Lincoln-Douglas, Congressional Debate, and Public Forum Debate (a relatively recent addition). This book is focused on policy debate. Policy debate is a “team” activity. “Team” means that you debate with a partner. It’s two on two – two people defend the affirmative and two people defend the negative. Each two person team

Policy Debate Terminology

A Add-on. An add-on is an additional affirmative advantage that teams may read in the 2AC. Add-ons are usually very short – two cards. The first card is usually a giant impact card and the second card is a card that explains how the affirmative avoids the impact. Advantage The advantage is the benefit the affirmative claims from solving their harm through their plan. For example, affirmatives could claim that


Prep Time Management

Introducing Prep Time Management At each debate tournament you will receive a specific amount of preparation time (“prep time”) for use in each debate. The amount of prep time that is allotted for each debate will vary by tournament, but generally you will receive, five, eight, or ten minutes of prep time. You and your partner need to share the allotted preparation time. You may divide the time however you


Debating Kritiks

  Introducing Kritiks Writing a chapter on debating kritiks is a relatively difficult task because there are many different types of kritiks, the theory surrounding kritiks is far from settled, and there is a heated debate in the community as to the legitimacy of critiques in general, particularly of many of newest forms. Presenting a description introduction is therefore a difficult task. Twenty or thirty years from now many of

Debating Counterplans

Introducing Counterplans A counterplan is a plan advocated by the negative that is an alternative to the affirmative’s plan.  The most essential defining element of a counterplan is that it is competitive – the negative must prove that the counterplan is better than the affirmative plan and a combination of the plan and all or part of the counterplan. For example, imagine that I suggest that we take a lunch